The best cartilage and joint support supplements compared

Anyone suffering from aching or inflamed joints can benefit from joint support supplements. These should contain a combination of glucosamine, chondroitin and several other clinically-proven vitamins, trace elements and amino acids. 

Joint supplement benefits

Cartilage and joint support micronutrients have been found beneficial by a large body of clinical studies.

  • They reduce pain12 & inflammation3 in joints,
  • They increase long-term mobility (18-24 months4) by helping to build cartilage5,
  • They are based on natural micronutrients, convenient, prescription-free and non-invasive,
  • They present an affordable and natural alternative to arthritis medications6.[/list]

best price


1st place: amitamin arthro360

buy amitamin arthro360 for less

With 110 points, amitamin’s arthro360 is the most complete product in our test. Its combination and dosage of micronutrients is scientifically effective with 1,800 mg of glucosamine sulphate and chondroitin sulphate, plus MSM, Omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA, as well as the super antioxidant pine bark extract.

The Triple Pack for three months starts at AUD 49.95 per pack per month. The exclusive distributor for Australia and New Zealand offers currently free shipping. A detailed description can be found here.

Buy online

2nd place: aminoexpert Arthro Pro


Following closely behind amitamin’s arthro360, with 100 points in our test: ARTHRO PRO by aminoexpert. Vitaminsbest started selling it recently in Australia and New Zealand starting at AUD 44.50 for a monthly pack in the three months order. They also offer currently free shipping to Australia and New Zealand.


Although it lacks omega-3 fish oils, the overall ingredients and dosage is effective with glucosamine, chondroitin, MSM, SAMe, amino acids and pine bark extract. Find a more detailed description here.

Buy online


3rd place: Dr. Jenson’s formula-X Joint Care Pro

Still highly effective, but not as complete as our number one and two is: Dr. Jenson’s formula-X Joint Care Pro with still 70 points in our test. With AUS 149.00 however, it has the highest monthly price in the top group. (…)


Buy online

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Places 4 to 10 in detail

4th place: Revive Active Premium Joint Complex

With 70 points, Revive Active Premium Joint Complex costs £34.84 per month + £1.90 shipping. It comes in daily powder sachets, which can be mixed with water, juice or smoothies. Produced in the USA and due to its powder format, it scored well due with its unusually high MSM and Kolllagen amounts amongst the standard Glucosamine and Chondroitin dosages.

It does not include omega-3 fatty acids, strong antioxidants, amino acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, zinc or selenium and therefore misses many key ingredients. The sachet format, however, represents a convenient alternative for those willing to spend more and miss out on a few nutrients.

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5th place: Met-Rx Super Joint Guard

Met-Rx Super Joint Guard has 63 points, because of its good array of vitamins and essential fats. Unfortunately, they are “bundled” into an untransparent proprietary mix so individual dosages are unavailable and the points were lost as a result. They are also mostly dosed far too low compared to dosages used in clinical studies to make any sort of impact.

It does include a good quantity of Glucosamine sulfate and Chondroiton sulfate and even Hyaluronic acid, but it is lacking in trace minerals lacking zinc and selenium altogether.

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6th place: Arthri-flex Advantage

Arthri-Flex Advantage scored 60 points, because it combines Glucosamine Sulfate, naturally occurring Chondroitin Sulfate and MSM. Significantly, the Chondroitin comes from “Premium Chicken Sternum Type II Kollagen” and is not quantified on the packaging. The chondroitin could therefore not be quantified for this evaluation and the points were lost as a result. It also is not It does not contain Selenium, Vitamin D and vitamin E or omega-3 acids.

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7th place: Labrada Elasti Joint Grape Powder

This drink powder from the USA scored 60 points with its extremely high dosages of Kollagen and MSM. The standard dosages of Glucosamine and Chondroitin due to an approximate amount of 10g drinking powder per day. It has, however, a very limited nutrient profile, because omega 3 acids, antioxidants, vitamins and trace minerals are missing altogether. It was therefore ranked 7th although it has the same number of points as 6th ranked Arthri-Flex Advantage.

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8th place: Nature’s Plus, Advanced Therapeutics, Ultra RX Joint Complete System, 2 Piece Kit

This product scored 55 points with its good mix of the basic nutrients Glucosamine, Chondroitin and MSM, but it is missing omega-3s, amino acids and most clinically proven vitamins and trace elements.

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9th place: Trec Nutrition – Joint Therapy Plus

50 points. Each bottle contains 90 capsules formulated from glucosamine, chondroitin, collagen, vitamin C and manganese. This supplement costs around £27.99 and the recommended dose is three capsule daily. It is also missing a large number of joint and cartilage micronutrients.

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10th place: Wellesse Premium Liquid Supplements, Joint Movement Glucosamine

45 points. Wellesse Premium Liquid is the only drinkable joint food on the market. Imported from the US it is a great alternative for all those, who do not like to swallow capsules.

However, this luxury comes at a price. The measurements are in US fluid ounces, the bottle includes 16 fl oz and the recommendation is 1 fl oz per day. The bottle will therefore last just over two weeks. From a nutritional perspective, the formula is also very incomplete and it has a high prive point. It is missing all trace elements, vitamins E and D, omega-3s, amino acids and antioxidants.

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Summary of all 22 tested products

Side-by-side evaluations

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How we tested

Herb medicineTo determine the best possible products for your joints we have compared and analysed the nutrients, dosages, costs and customer service of 24 of the best known joint and cartilage supplements available on the UK high street or for online purchase .

To be included in the test, all products had to

  • arrive within 5 working days of purchase,
  • have a customer support hotline available,
  • be available on the high-street or via SSL secured websites,
  • be purchasable via credit card & PayPal.


At first glance, many products appear to be similar. But under closer scrutiny the differences in the “nutrient-stacks” and quantities of nutrients provided become significant.

The Standard Method for Evaluation

In this comparison we only considered food supplements with clinically-proven effective micronutrients, which are available over-the-counter either on the high street or online for delivery in the UK & Ireland.

We used a standard scoring system for the various ingredients and concentrations to allow for a transparent side-by-side comparison:


  • We awarded up to 20 points per active ingredient for the most thoroughly researched, clinically proven beneficial joint nutrients glucosamine, chondroitin and MSM.
  • We awarded up to 10 points for well-researched nutrients and natural remedies Omega-3, Hyaluronic acid and pine bark extract. These micronutrients are thought to be slightly less effective than glucosamine and chondroitin. They also cannot be sold as medicines according to our research. There is good evidence of their beneficial effects and there are no significant side effects.
  • We awarded up to five points for all other positively-researched micronutrients that are important for the musculoskeletal system, cell protection and the immune system. In our calculations, these include Collagen, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin D, amino acids, selenium, manganese and zinc. When deficient in the body, these micronutrients can lead to joint problems and are therefore important for general health. Even without a known deficiency, increasing the intake of these nutrients can have important health benefits (although not necessarily always clinically proven). This applies in particular as the body ages and demand for nutrients increases as a result of illness or medication. There are no known adverse side effects even in larger dosages.


Dosages: A micronutrient only becomes effective when sufficiently dosed. We have allocated reduced scores accordingly, where a nutrient is present in the product, but the dosage is lower than generally recommended.

Under these criteria a perfect score of 135 points could have been scored by any supplement according to our system. However, no supplement was able to achieve this.  

Firstly, this particular “perfect” nutrient mix does not yet exist. Secondly, it would take a large amount capsules of (approx. six to eight) to provide the appropriate nutrient dosages on a daily basis.

Other potential criteria such as packaging, dosage form (tablets, capsules or powder) as well as price have not been included in point allocation, because of a natural variation in personal preferences.

Delivery, customer service: All test orders were received within 3 – 5 business days and all returns were processed to a satisfactory degree. We have therefore not included this factor as a separate score either.

These natural remedies were not included in the evaluation

Pain relievers, medicines and homeopathic remedies were excluded. We also attempted to focus on products, which had their ingredients and dosages clearly labelled. Products with “proprietary mixes” which did not break down the exact nutrient composition lost points on poor transparency.

In addition, there are many more natural remedies, vitamins and trace elements which are regularly recommended by orthopaedic specialists and scientists. We did not include the following ingredients in the analysis, because we could not find insufficiently conclusive information. Conversely, this does not mean, that these substances aren’t beneficial for joints or the immune system:


  • Incense: inconclusive study results.
  • Green-lipped mussel: may help, but product quality varies significantly. It includes large amounts of glucosamine and selenium, which is why it is better to take outright glucosamine + selenium supplements.
  • Boron: initial research suggests that a boron deficiency can cause joint problems. This micronutrient has not yet been sufficiently researched.
  • Willow Bark: In the single study testing it against a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for osteoarthritis, it wasn’t as effective for pain relief.

What Makes A Top Joint Food Supplement

The differences between the individual products can be significant. In general you should keep in mind:


  • Supplements must include a combination of clinically proven micronutrients and offer these at a dosage similar to the one used in the clinical study.
  • Products with a daily recommended consumption of only one or two capsules are not sufficiently dosed to effectively assist joint health. Generally speaking, 3 to 6 capsules are physically required on a daily basis to provide enough amounts of effective nutrients to have a beneficial effect on joint and cartilage.
  • For this reason, the more expensive supplements tend to be of higher quality, although this isn’t always the case.
  • Good products can be bought online as well as on the high street pharmacy or drug store. You should buy only when ingredients and quantities are clearly stated. This can sometimes be difficult to determine. Products, which did not clearly list all nutrients lost points as a result.


The following clinically-proven micronutrients should be included in a quality joint and cartilage food supplement:


  • Glucosamine and Chondroitin: These two substances are considered the “joint supplement classics”. Glucosamine sulphate and chondroitin sulphate are the most effective form of these compounds. Unfortunately, some manufacturers don’t offer adequate dosages in their products. At least 1,200 mg of glucosamine and 400 mg of chondroitin sulphate should be consumed per day. The benefits of these compounds can be complemented and boosted by the following ingredients:
  • Omega-3 fatty acids (DHA and EPA) from fish oil. They have an anti-inflammatory effect, promote good cardiovascular health and help reduce bad (LDL) cholesterol levels.
  • Pine bark extract has been researched extensively since the mid-1990s and proven effective for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects on osteoarthritis and arthritis.
  • MSM (methylsulfonylmethane) is an organic sulphur compound. MSM has anti-inflammatory effects and helps to protect against cartilage degradation.
  • Amino acids such as methionine and cysteine are good sources of sulfur as well as MSM. Joint experts recommend a diet rich in these amino acids.
  • Hyaluronic acid is usually injected directly into the joint, but also recommended by many experts for use as a dietary supplement. Further research studies are desirable to show effective dosage and treatment duration.
  • Collagen hydrolysate: Taken as a separate powder and normally dosed at 10 grams per day. Not as well researched as glucosamine and chondroitin, but still recommended.
  • Vitamin C is important for immune system. It also helps to protect against cell-damaging free radicals and is involved in the formation of collagen fibres. In the Stone Age humans consumed approximately 4,000 mg vitamin C daily via their diet at the time. Today most adults in the Western world struggle to consume the minimum daily recommended dose of 80 mg per day.
  • Vitamin E is a fat soluble antioxidant. Highly-dosed vitamin E is also an anti-inflammatory analgesic. About half of all people in Central Europe are deficient in vitamin E.
  • Vitamin D is important for the immune system, calcium metabolism and therefore bone health. A lack of vitamin D is one of the main causes of osteoporosis according to nutritionists. Approximately 90% of people are deficient in this vitamin and supplementation is therefore highly recommended, not just for for arthritis patients.
  • Selenium, manganese, copper and zinc are trace elements with an inhibitory effect on inflammation. They protect the cartilage from breakdown and promote beneficial metabolism of connective tissue7.


The best products for your joints

A quality arthritis food supplement should include the following micronutrients.

Each of them has been clinically proven beneficial for joint health, are well-researched and have no or very small side effects as a food supplement:



Final remarks

The food supplements featured in this comparison are just a few from a very large amount of joint & cartilage support products available on the market. The metabolic benefits of the micronutrients are mostly well documented.

Please keep in mind that some products, which that have achieved lower scores in our test or that have not been listed may be more beneficial than other products depending on individual conditions. Nevertheless, we strongly believe that we’ve made the criteria as transparent and fair as possible.

This overview can and must not replace a professional medical assessment and diagnosis conducted by a fully qualified and registered orthopedists, rheumatologists or sports medicine specialists. This comparison is therefore not meant to promote unsupervised self-medication.

Bewegung bei Arthrose


Finally, please keep in mind that these three lifestyle factors are crucial for your joint health:

  1. A balanced diet with unprocessed low fat meats and plenty of whole foods, fruit and vegetables,
  2. regular low-impact exercise such as walking and swimming avoiding stress on the joints, as well as
  3. the prevention of obesity and the resulting overuse of joints.

Please consider these factors, as well as regular exercise, a healthy, well-balanced diet rich in whole foods, fish and low in red meats – not only for your joints, but indeed for you overall health, vitality and longevity.


Frequently Asked Questions

Pain Killers versus Food Supplements?

Should you rather use conventional pain relief or nutritional supplements and natural remedies? It is very important to have a full medical examination and professional diagnosis before determining the correct course of action for any joint problem. Only a fully qualified medical professional will be able to provide a correct diagnosis and determine the most likely causes of pain and joint degradation.

Pain killers can help quickly, cheaply and are almost universally available. However, they do not promote the generation and repair of cartilage, can have detrimental long-term health effects (can lead heart and liver problems) are therefore not appropriate for long-term use. It is thus important to discuss your health with a doctor or pharmacist in order to chose the most appropriate painkiller and dosage.

Dietary supplements and other natural remedies for joints do not have immediate effects. They may need to be taken for weeks, and in some cases months, before the nutritional benefits initially become obvious. Crucially, however, they tend not to have known side effects and for the most part have been proven effective in peer-reviewed, clinical studies in supporting better long-term cartilage health and sometimes even re-generation.

It’s important that if you have a shellfish allergy you do not take glucosamine. Allergies to other substances such as chondroitin and MSM are rare, but should be checked against in individual cases.


  1. “Lerna et al. 2010. Supplementation of diet with krill oil protects against experimental rheumatoid arthritis. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 11, 136, doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-11-136”
  2. “Brien et al. 2008. Systematic review of the nutritional supplements dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 16(11), 1277-1288”
  3. “Dzielska-Olczak & Nowak. 2012. Anti-inflammatory therapy in ostheoarthritis including omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids. Polish Merkur Lekarski 32(191), 329-334; Calder. 2006. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83(suppl), 1505S-1519S”
  4. “Van Vijven et al., 2012. Symptomatic treatment with chondroprotective and collagen derivatives for osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 20 (8), 809-821″
  5. “http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16309928”
  6. “http://ard.bmj.com/content/early/2015/01/14/annrheumdis-2014-206792.full”
  7. Feil, W., “Die Dr. Feil Strategie. Arthrose und Gelenkschmerzen überwinden.”, 1. Aufl. 2013, S. 49; ISBN 978-3-00-040191-6

The Best and Worst Arthritis Foods

There are approximately 10 million people in the UK alone suffering from some form of arthritis. This disease of the musculoskeletal system presents itself in a wide range of form, with over 100 different classifications.

In general, arthritis symptoms include joint inflammation, stiffness, pain, and impaired function. There are a wide range of joints and surrounding tissues that can be affected, eventually leading to joint instability, deformation, and lack of mobility if not properly managed.

Unfortunately, at this stage there is no 100% cure for any type of arthritis, including the prevalent osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Nevertheless, there has been significant research into combination therapies that are making living with arthritis more manageable. In addition to medications, occupational therapy, and natural supplements, more people are subscribing to an arthritis diet consciously eating more of some foods and less of others.

How Important Is Diet For Arthritis?

Like many diseases, our diet affects our body’s ability to deal with arthritis. There are some foods which exasperate symptoms, while others can help to alleviate symptoms.  By paying attention to the types of foods consumed, it’s possible to better manage arthritis.

There are several key dietary recommendations for people with arthritis:

  • Maintain a well-balanced diet to support general health. A poor diet will not only negatively affect arthritis symptoms, it may also accelerate the progression of the disease and make the body more susceptible to other health problems.
  • Avoid fasting or crash diets that place added strain on the body
  • Increase calcium intake to minimise the risk of developing osteoporosis
  • Maintain healthy fluid intake, drinking plenty of water.
  • Keep bodyweight within a healthy range. Too much weight places extra stress on the joints, especially the hips and knees.


While these are good general guidelines, any arthritis diet should also focus on reducing inflammation, strengthening bones and cartilage, and reducing oxidative stress by elevating antioxidant intake.

The Problem With Inflammation

One of the key considerations in any arthritis diet plan is to avoid foods that promote inflammation. This especially applies to people already diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, lupus, or ankylosing spondylitis.

OVERVIEW: Rheumatoid Arthritis, Gout, Psoriatic Arthritis, Lupus and Ankylosing Spondylitis

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory type of arthritis that usually affects knees. Rheumatoid arthritis of the knee the auto immune disease. The body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue.

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory type of arthritis that usually affects knees. Rheumatoid arthritis of the knee the auto immune disease. The body’s immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

After osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis is the most common form of arthritis in the UK, affecting approximately 400, 000 people. Symptoms of this disease usually start to present themselves when the patient is aged between 40 and 50, although adults of any age can be affected. Rheumatoid arthritis affects more women than men1.

Although the exact cause of rheumatoid arthritis is not fully understood, it’s known that the immune system has an abnormal response that promotes joint inflammation, attacking cartilage and other tissues around the joint. This progressively damages the joint and causes stiffness and discomfort, ultimately impeding function and movement


This form of inflammatory arthritis develops in response to an abnormal build-up of uric acid. The body is unable to effectively expel this substance, leading to crystallisation and deposition within the joints. Gout is typically associated with the big toe; however the ankles, insteps, fingers, knees, wrists, heels, and elbows may also be affected.

Psoriatic Arthritis

People that have the skin condition psoriasis are at risk of developing psoriatic arthritis. Although there are variations in symptoms, inflammation is very common and can cause significant pain and discomfort.


There are several classifications of lupus, although they all related to tissue swelling associated with an abnormal auto-immune response. Systemic lupus erythematosus is especially detrimental to joint health.

Ankylosing Spondylitis

Predominately associated with the spine, ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory arthritis characterised by back stiffness and pain. Over time it can lead to ankylosis. Often other parts of the body are also affected by inflammation including the hip, shoulders, ribs, and hand and feet joints.

What Causes Inflammation?

One of the underlying causes of these arthritic diseases is inflammation. When joints become inflamed they attract more inflammatory agents and white blood cells that cause further irritation. This causes the synovium (joint lining) to swell and leak into the surrounding tissues.

MEDICAL VIDEOS: Inflammation Explained

Medical videos

This is an excellent video explaining the body’s general inflammatory response:

And this is a technical video explaining in great detail specifically the pathology of joint inflammation:

illustration of joints most commonly affected by rheumatoid arthritisThis swelling causes the joints to become stiff, restricting movement and causing pain and discomfort. As a result the cartilage and bone can start to breakdown and thin, further aggravating the joints and leading to disease progression.

By gaining greater control over inflammation, it’s possible to reduce swelling. This will naturally reduce pain and discomfort, improving mobility and slowing joint degradation.

Controlling COX-1 & COX-2 with NSAIDs

One of the major underlying causes of joint inflammation are the enzymes cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). These enzymes trigger the release of prostaglandins, key hormones that elevate inflammation.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are prescribed to block COX-2, acting as inhibitors to inflammation. However, long-term use of these drugs has detrimental side effects.

There is now a large shift towards natural compounds that can help reduce inflammation in combination therapies to treat arthritis.

Preventing Inflammation With An Arthritis Diet

The relationship between diet and arthritis inflammation is a very important consideration in any patient’s diet plan. Food contains different nutrients and other compounds that can impact inflammation both positively and negatively.

Some substances will aggravate inflammation, while others can help to minimise inflammation. Understanding which foods to avoid and which foods to include in your diet for arthritis can make a significant difference.

Foods That Reduce Inflammation

Foods That Reduce Inflammation

Omega-3 fatty acids

One key nutrient that is proving to be effective in reducing inflammation in sufferers of arthritis is omega-3 fatty acids. Many studies have confirmed that supplementation with this nutrient can help to ease inflammation of the joints without negative side effects2 3 4 5.

Fatty fish are the best sources of omega-3s. However, there are also vegetarian sources, especially nuts and seeds.

Omega-3-Rich Foods
• Flaxseeds • Walnuts • Sardines • Salmon • Beef • Soybeans • Tofu • Shrimps • Brussels Sprouts • Cauliflower


Foods rich in fibre help to fight inflammation by reducing the concentration of c-reactive protein. This protein is a marker of acute inflammation. Not only are high levels of c-reactive protein associated with patients suffering from arthritis, studies show that this protein is an important predictive marker for diabetes and cardiovascular disease6.

For these reasons alone, it’s highly recommended to have a high fibre diet7. This will help to elevate arthritis symptoms, and it will also help to protect the body against other health problems.

Fibre-Rich Foods
• Whole grains • Apples • Bananas • Oranges • Strawberries • Pear • Beans • Pulses • Almonds • Broccoli

Vitamin B6

There has been a lot of research into the relationship between arthritis and B6. Also known and pyridoxine, this is one of eight B vitamins. The body is unable to store B vitamins because they are water soluble. Some studies have shown that people with rheumatoid arthritis have a higher requirement for B6 because inflammation reduces availablity8. Supplementation with vitamin B6 has been found to significantly reduce the levels of pro-inflammatory compounds tumor necrosis factor –alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)9.

Vitamin B6-Rich Foods
• Pork • Beef • Fish • Turkey • Sunflower Seeds • Pistachio Nuts • Prunes • Bananas • Avocadoes • Spinach

These nutrients can all be sourced from high quality whole foods. However, foods supplements are more time-efficient and cost-effective at supplying the nutrients. Of course, patients should do their utmost to follow a healthy arthritis-friendly diet in any case.


Strengthening Bones and Joints

cheesesMany people that suffer from arthritis are also at risk of developing osteoporosis. Therefore, any arthritis diet foods should contain nutrients that support the strengthening of the joints and bones.

Calcium, vitamin K2 (menaquinone), vitamin D, phosphorus, magnesium, and manganese are all important nutrients that support healthy bones and joints.

Calcium is essential for maintaining bone mass. However, for the body to effectively utilise calcium it needs the support of other nutrients.


Key nutrients that support calcium absorption

Nutrients Needed To Absorb Calcium

Vitamin K2

This vitamin plays a key role in calcium metabolism, with several studies confirming that menaquinone is important for protecting bone health10,11,12. Menaquinone is found in certain animal foods and fermented foods. Unfortunately, K2-rich foods are typically high in fat. So while it is important to included foods containing K2 in an arthritis diet, they should be consumed in moderation.

Vitamin D

This pseudo-vitamin is needed to help increase the absorption rate of calcium within the gastrointestinal tract. Without vitamin D, calcitriol cannot be formed, preventing the insufficient calcium availability and weakening of the bones.


The second most abundant mineral in the body after calcium, phosphorus also plays an important role in building strong bones and teeth. Most people get sufficient phosphorus in their diet.

Magnesium and Manganese

The trace elements magnesium and manganese are needed to absorb calcium. Studies show that deficiencies in these nutrients cause bone degradation and can increase the risk of osteoporosis13,14.

Foods that promote strong bones & joints

Foods for Strong Bones and Joints


While most people associated dairy foods with calcium, many leafy greens, legumes, fruit, and seafood also contain this important mineral.

Calcium-Rich Foods
• Collard greens • Broccoli • Kale • Soy beans • Bok Choy • Figs • Oranges • Sardines • Salmon • Shrimp • Ricotta • Yogurt • Milk • Mozzarella • Cheddar cheese • Feta cheese • Cottage cheese • Parmesan cheese

Vitamin K

The primary sources of this vitamin are meat derived, especially organ meat. This is because animals have the ability to synthesise this vitamin from vitamin K1 they aquire from eating grass. Consequently, meats, dairy and eggs derived from grass-fed animals have a richer concentration of vitamin K2 compared with animals that are grain fed15.

Natto is the only vegetarian source of vitamin K2. The only reason natto contains vitamin K2 is due the bacterial strain used during the fermentation process. Vegetarians and vegans may need to take a dietary supplement to ensure that they are gaining enough vitamin K2 in their diet.

Since the richest sources of vitamin K2 also have a high concentration of saturated fat it’s important not to eat excessive amounts of these foods. This is another reason why a dietary supplement may be a better alternative.

Vitamin K2-Rich Foods
• Natto (fermented soybeans) • Hard cheese • Soft cheese • Egg yolk • Butter • Chicken liver • Salami • Chicken breast • Ground beef

Vitamin D

The body produces vitamin D when exposed to sufficient sunlight. There are also some food sources of vitamin D, but this is largely restricted to fish.

Vitamin D-Rich Foods
• Salmon • Tuna • Mackerel • Fish liver oil • Mushrooms • Beef liver • Cheese • Egg yolks


Fortunately phosphorus is found in just about all foods, so rarely are any changes needed in an arthritis diet to account for a deficiency.

Phosphorus-Rich Foods
• Salmon • Pumpkin Seeds • Shellfish • Cheese • Brazil Nuts • Pork • Beef • Veal • Pulses • Sardines • Soya Beans

Magnesium & Manganese

Seafood and plant-based foods tend to be the best sources of the trace elements magnesium and manganese.

Manganese & Magnesium-Rich Foods
• Shellfish • Nuts • Seeds • Tofu • Whole Gains • Beans • Fish • Spinach • Kale • Bananas • Yogurt

These nutrients can all be sourced from high quality whole foods. However, foods supplements are more time-efficient and cost-effective at supplying the nutrients. Of course, patients should do their utmost to follow a healthy arthritis-friendly diet in any case.


Increasing Antioxidant Availability

we have compared the best joint supplements with antioxidants for youResearch shows that there is increasing evidence that oxidative stress plays a major role in the degradation of joints affected by rheumatoid arthritis16. Chronic inflammation is closely linked to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause cellular damage17.

Not only does oxidative stress promote inflammation, it also has a direct impact on the joints by attacking important components of the structural tissue, such as proteoglycans, and stoping their synthesis18. Therefore, any rheumatoid arthritis diet plan should include plenty of antioxidants to try and reduce free radical activity.

An easy way to naturally increase dietary antioxidant intake is to eat an assortment of colourful vegetables and fruits each day. These foods are rich in anti-inflammatory antioxidants such as vitamin E, A, and C.

Other key antioxidant is the trace element selenium, which can be found in lean meats, seafood, poultry, peas, beans, eggs, seeds, and nuts. Copper, zinc, manganese, and iron are also important nutrients that can have antioxidant benefits due to their associated enzymatic activity with superoxide dismutases.

Threating rheumatoid arthritis with antioxidant therapy

Antioxidant Therapy

cruciferousThe use of antioxidant therapy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis has been a subject of many recent studies. Antioxidants such as vitamin E and superoxide dismutase have been successfully used in therapy to treat inflammation in animal experiments19,20.

In human clinical studies, high doses of vitamin E over several months have been shown to support better disease control in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis21.

Other research has demonstrated that combination therapies using antioxidants together with conventional drugs22, or with omega-3 fatty acids23 can reduce the symptoms of inflammation and offer relief to people affected by rheumatoid arthritis.

While patients participating in these studies were given antioxidants via supplements, there is also evidence that natural dietary intakes of antioxidants can also help with the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. For example, patients that adopt a Mediterranean-type diet naturally increase antioxidant intake and subsequently experience less rheumatoid arthritis activity24.

Other studies have also found that a healthy dietary antioxidant nutrient intake can reduce free radical formation and enhance the antioxidant activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients25. Certain micronutrients, such as beta-cryptoxanthine and zinc, together with a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables and fruit can have a protective role against the development of rheumatoid arthritis26.

Dietary Supplements

In addition to eating antioxidant rich foods there are plenty of supplements available that are enriched with essential nutrients that can reduce oxidative stress and associated inflammation. These joint care supplements are an important aspect of an rheumatoid arthritis diet plan.


What Foods Should You Avoid With An Arthritis Diet?

Everybody will react differently to various foods and there is no “perfect” arthritis diet. However, many people with arthritis should foods that are known to irritate inflammation.

Arthritis Diet Foods To Avoid
• Sugar • Refined Carbohydrates • Alcohol • Saturated & Trans Fats • Gluten • Nightshades

Watch this short video for the 5 worst foods for arthritis



  1. “Crowson, C. et.al. (2011). The lifetime risk of adult-onset rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Arthritis and Rheumatology, Volume 63, Issue 3, (pp. 633-9).”
  2. “Artemis, P. and Simopoulos, M. (2002). Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Volume 21, Issue 6.”
  3. “Geusens, P. et.al. (2005). Long-term effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in active rheumatoid arthritis. Volume 37, Issue 6, (pp. 824-9).”
  4. “Yan, Y. et.al. (2013). Omega-3 fatty acids prevent inflammation and metabolic disorder through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Immunity, Volume 38, Issue 6, (pp. 1154-63).”
  5. “Calder, P. (2013). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: nutrition or pharmacology? British Journal of Clinical Phamacology. Volume 75, Issue 3, (pp. 645-62).”
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  8. “Friso, S. et.al.(2001). Low circulating vitamin B(6) is associated with elevation of the inflammation marker C-reactive protein independently of plasma homocysteine levels. Circulation. Volume 103, Issue 23, (pp. 2788-91).”
  9. “Huang, et.al. (2010). Vitamin B6 supplementation improves pro-inflammatory responses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 64, (pp. 1007-13).”
  10. “Kanpen, M. et.al. (2013).Three-year-low-dose menaquinone-7 supplementation helps decrease bone lose in healthy postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis International. Volume 24, Issue 9, (pp. 2499-507).”
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  12. “Ishida, Y. (2008). Vitamin K2. Clinical Calcium, Volume 18, Issue 10, (pp. 1476-82).”
  13. “Strause, L. and Saltman, P.(1987). “Role of Manganese in Bone Metabolism.” In: Nutritional Bioavailability of Manganese. American Chemical Society, (pp. 46-55).”
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  15. “.Rheaume-Bleue K. (2011). Vitamin K2 and the Calcium Paradox: How a Little-Known Vitamin Could Save Your Life. 1st ed. Ontario, Canada; Wiley.”
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Summary: glucosamine and osteoarthritis

Glucosamine is a naturally occurring substance (amino sugar) in the joints. Multiple studies have shown that when glucosamine is consumed for a minimum of two to six months, it seems to have anti-inflammatory and cartilage-building effects.

The effects are significantly improved when glucosamine is combined with chondroitin and omega-3 fatty acids. In addition, several other other natural micro nutrient remedies such as pine bark extract and vitamins can help the body fight inflammation and improve the metabolism of cartilage.

Generally, glucosamine as well as other natural micro nutrient joint foods have no side effects. They can and should be taken over a long period of time. Glucosamine is generally considered an essential element of a natural complimentary food therapy for the treatment of osteoarthritis and arthritis.

What is glucosamine?

What is glucosamine?

glucosamineGlucosamine belongs to the class of amino sugars. Chemically it only differs from the glucose molecule by one amino group, which is not present in glucose.

In chemistry, an amino group is a functional group, which includes a nitrogen atom and two hydrogen atoms. An organic compound that contains an amino group is called an amine, as in glucosamine.

A large part of joint cartilage is composed of various glucosamine compounds. Glucosamine therefore plays a major part in the protection of joint cartilage. The effect of additional dietary glucosamine on arthritic changes in joints is intensively under examination.

In order to ensure the chemical stability of glucosamine and to improve its uptake in the body, it is frequently consumed in the chemical form of either glucosamine sulphate or glucosamine hydrochloride.

TIP 1: Glucosamine sulphate is preferable over glucosamine hydrochloride, because it provides the joint with more sulphur (sulphate).

What does the body need glucosamine for? Are there side effects?

Currently, glucosamine is one of the most promising natural substances in the support of healthy joints. It is also naturally made in the body, which is why very few, if any, side effects are expected as a result of taking glucosamine. In the human body, glucosamine plays an important role in the development of supporting and connective tissue, which includes the joint cartilage. Glucosamine also supports the production of mucous substances and secretions.

Do glucosamine and glucosamine sulphate help to alleviate arthritic complaints?

Glucosamine for pain relief and cartilage development


Arthrosis SurgeryGlucosamine is thought to relieve pain and inflammation and help in the formation of new cartilage tissue. This has been confirmed by many orthopaedists in practice.

However, joint cartilage heals very slowly. While skin is regenerated in around seven days, even small amounts of damaged cartilage requires two to three months to recover. As a result, clinical studies tend to last a minimum of six to eighteen months. Several studies have shown positive effects on patients with osteoarthritis or arthritis. And in addition to this, there have been some very promising approaches in which glucosamine has been combined with other substances such as omega-3 fatty acids and chondroitin.

Although pain relief has often been observed in association with glucosamine, no studies have been able to conclusively prove the regeneration of joint cartilage through glucosamine.

This is likely due to two reasons:

  1. The exact condition and thickness of the cartilage can only be measured using expensive procedures and
  2. the actual regeneration takes several years. Since glucosamine is not a nutrient protected by patents, there is no economic incentive to produce evidence, which is likely very expensive.

We present here a number of clinical studies on glucosamine sulphate and its effects on pain and mobility in osteoarthritis.

Results of studies on glucosamine

Studies on glucosamine

Glucosamine: to be taken alone or in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs?

glucosamin sulfat for arthrosisIn 2012 Selvan and colleagues tested the influence of glucosamine sulphate and a combination of glucosamine sulphate with anti-inflammatory drugs. Their subjects suffered from mild to moderate osteoarthritis 1. In total, 43 participants were given glucosamine sulphate, and a further 39 participants were treated with the combination therapy. All patients were treated for 30 days, and were subsequently assessed for a further three months.

Interestingly, mobility of the affected joints improved in both groups and in general the subjects reported that they felt less pain. As expected, the effect on the level of pain (reduction) felt was greater in the group given the combination therapy. Here the painkillers used specifically targeted and reduced the severe inflammation. This reduced the major swellings, which increased the mobility of the joints. If less inflammation occurs in a joint, the pain is naturally reduced.

As natural anti-inflammatories, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin E, pine bark extract and willow extract are particularly effective. They complement glucosamine very well.

Glucosamine inhibits inflammation

effect of glucosamin on knee painIf glucosamine is used at an early stage and over a long period of time, it can potentially reduce the need to take anti-inflammatory medication (NSAIDs). Importantly, this means that the side effects of pain killers are reduced. Ultimately, this improves the quality of life of those affected.

Interestingly, glucosamine itself seems to have a weak anti-inflammatory effect. As a consequence, it reduces inflammation and swelling. This could possibly contribute to joint damage progressing at a much slower rate.

Glucosamine and chondroitin are effective treatments in cases of severe osteoarthritis

A French study was conducted in 2006 involving more than 1,500 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. This study investigated the impact of various osteoarthritis treatments on the different patient complaints2:

  • Glucosamine sulphate
  • Chondroitin sulphate
  • A combination of glucosamine and chondroitin
  • Painkiller (celecoxib)

In cases of mild osteoarthritis, the difference between glucosamine and placebo treatment was only small. However, patients with more severe osteoarthritis had statistically significant improvements compared to the placebo (the results were clearly measurable and did not occur by chance). 70% of patients that were given the combination preparation of glucosamine and chondroitin had less pain and better mobility.

Effectiveness of glucosamine sulphate in combination with other substances

Glucosamine sulphate affects the pain in the joints and also down the progression of arthritis. Very frequently, however, results differ between experiments in cell cultures and studies in people.

The direct comparison between the quality individual papers is further complicated by the use of different glucosamine dosages and different measurement systems.

Very generally it can be said that glucosamine offers pain relief particularly in cases of mild pain 3.

Combination with Omega-3 and vitamins is recommended

glucosamin and omega-3The combination of glucosamine with other substances frequently leads to an altered effect. For example, when glucosamine sulphate is administered in combination with omega-3 fatty acids or vitamins, its effect seems to be stronger 4. Similarly, the same effect has also been described for glucosamine sulphate and chondroitin.

The nutrient combination is therefore consistently more effective than the individual substance 5.


There are also some clinical studies, which could not show any evidence of the effectiveness of glucosamine. A review paper by Burdett and McNeil in 2012 takes a critical view of the previous studies investigating the effects of glucosamine sulphate in patients with osteoarthritis 6.

The authors specifically point out that there are clearly promising in-vitro (laboratory) experiments, but the effectiveness in humans (in-vivo) is very different.

Very often, a modified study design means that the work cannot be directly compared with other investigations. Perhaps most importantly, the actual mechanism of how glucosamine works in the cartilage continues to remain unknown.

The two scientists concluded that glucosamine sulphate may at best cause a mild improvement in pain. However, they do not offer an alternative form of medication instead. The bottom line remains: a product that is consistently able to stop and reverse arthritis has not been found, and on the basis of risk-benefit analyses, glucosamine sulphate remains a recommended basic therapy.

Glucosamine can reduce the side effects of pain killers

In addition to this, it has been demonstrated that a glucosamine protects against stomach damage, which occurs when the painkiller indomethacin is prescribed. Similarly, the use of multi-nutrient combination therapy has shown a considerable reduction in the symptoms of arthritis in mice.

The authors finally highlight that the combination of painkillers and glucosamine could offer a way of saving on painkillers for patients with arthritis in the future. This provides a way of reducing the possible side effects of the medication in the gastrointestinal tract.

Therefore many orthopaedists recommend taking glucosamine and other nutrients:

TIP: Combine glucosamine with chondroitin and omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil (DHA and EPA). Omega-3 fish oil does not only help to protect your joints against inflammation, but it helps you improve the health of your blood vessels and cholesterol levels at the same time!

Osteoarthritis in animals: dogs and horses

Glucosamine in osteoarthritis in horses

An interesting question asked was whether glucosamine, when taken orally, arrives in the cartilage of joints at all? To determine this a few studies were conducted with animals, which had been given glucosamine sulphate or glucosamine hydrochloride.

Subsequently the blood and synovial fluid of the animals was tested in order to determine the concentration of glucosamine. In this way, Meulyzer and colleagues investigated the levels of the nutrient in horses, which were given 20mg glucosamine per kilogram of body weight orally or intravenously (equivalent to a human dose of 1500 mg in a person weighing 75kg)7.

After 5 to 720 minutes blood samples were taken from the animals at regular intervals. A sample of synovial fluid was taken 48 hours before the experiment, in addition to being taken 1, 6 and 12 hours after glucosamine was consumed.

In the case of oral administration of glucosamine, the concentration of glucosamine rose to 1 µg/ml. The concentration in the synovia was significantly higher after 1 and 6 hours than the initial value.

Additionally, glucosamine sulphate had a significantly higher level of bioavailability than glucosamine hydrochloride. However the authors could not comment upon the effect of glucosamine on the joint cartilage. In other studies which involve the use of human test subjects, more questions could be answered

Glucosamine can reduce the need for painkillers

In their study, scientists in South Korea have reported the possibility of using glucosamine hydrochloride to reduce the prescription of painkillers for patients dependent upon their individual circumstances 8.

The researchers wanted to clarify whether glucosamine could help reduce dosage of painkillers in the case of arthritis. A mouse model was used for this purpose. The animals received indomethacin as a painkiller, or a combination of indomethacin and glucosamine hydrochloride. Less inflammatory mediators were formed when mice were given the combination with glucosamine hydrochloride. Furthermore, painkillers could be significantly reduced. 

Joint and cartilage support combination products: for complete support!

A chain is only as strong as its weakest link. This applies also to the processes of maintaining cartilage and combatting inflammation. Cartilage, ligaments and bones need a multitude of vitamins, minerals and amino acids for tissue generation and to counteract inflammation.

There are many simple glucosamine supplements on the market. Optimised joint food supplements with sensibly combined micro nutriernts however are few and far in between.


Glucosamine Products

We selected three products for you here, which offer daily glucosamine quantities above 1,000 mg per day – the amount, which has been clinically shown beneficial for joints.

Patients with osteoarthritis: keep moving and eat right to support your joint health!

Firstly, natural remedies tend to be complimentary to a holistic approach of treating arthritis. Secondly, it is important to gently and continuously keep your joints moving, whilst taking care to avoid high impact loads on joints.

The third and final important element of avoiding wear and tear of joints is to avoid being overweight and ensure that you eat properly. This includes avoiding foods, which promote inflammation and instead focus on foods, which combat inflammation.


  1. Selvan et al. 2012. A Clinical Study on Glucosamine Sulfate versus Combination of Glucosamine Sulfate and NSAIDs in Mild to Moderate Knee Osteoarthritis. Scientific World Journal: 902676; doi: 10.1100/2012/902676
  2. Clegg, D.O. et al.: “Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and the two in combination for painful knee osteoarthritis.” NEJM, 2006, 354, 795-808
  3. Henrotin et al. 2012. Is there any scientific evidence for the use of glucosamine in the management of human osteoarthritis? Arthritis Research Therapy 14(1), 201
  4. Gruenwald et al. 2009. Effect of glucosamine sulfate with or without omega-3 fatty acids in patients with osteoarthritis. Advances in Therapy 26(9), 858-871; Haflah et al. 2009. Palm vitamin E and glucosamine sulphate in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Saudi Medical Journal 30(11), 1432-1438
  5. Chan et al. 2007. Effects of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate on bovine cartilage explants under long-term culture conditions. American Journal of Veterinary Research 68:709–715. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.68.7.709
  6. Burdett & McNeil. 2012. Difficulties with assessing the benefit of glucosamine sulphate as a treatment for osteoarthritis. Int J Evid Based Healthc 10(3), 222-6; doi: 10.1111/j.1744-1609.2012.00279.x
  7. Meulyzer et al. 2008. Comparison of pharmacokinetics of glucosamine and synovial fluid levels following administration of glucosamine sulphate or glucosamine hydrochloride. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 16(9), 973-9; doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2008.01.006
  8. Park et al. 2013. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) sparing effects of glucosamine hydrochloride through N-gycosylation inhibition; strategy to rescue stomach from NSAID damage. J Physiol Pharmacol 64(2), 157-165


MSM is short for methylsulfonylmethane. It is a member of the group of organic sulfur compounds (sulfones). Methylsulfonylmethane can be found in both vegetable products and animal products. Milk and coffee are two examples which both contain relatively high levels of this sulfur compound.

Increasingly often, MSM is consumed in the form of dietary supplements for the treatment of osteoarthritis. As a sulfur compound, it provides the body with the sulfur that it necessarily needs to grow cartilage tissue.

Osteoarthritis: Effect, Side Effects, Dosage, Application Instructions
MSM has a pain-relieving and detoxicating effect. The sulfur contained inmethylsulfonylmethane is an important building block for cartilage tissue. Cartilage tissue should therefore be positively affected by an increased consumption, although such effects are yet to be conclusively proven.

A minimum daily dosage of 100mg is recommended. No side effects have yet been officially reported. MSM is typically consumed in powder format via capsules for easier, tasteless swallowing.



MSM is a so-called “metabolite“, i.e. an intermediate product metabolized by the body. It is closely related to DMSO, an authorized medicinal product. The source of the compound is DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide).

Intensive research has been conducted on DMSO as a pharmaceutical. Since the stomach immediately transforms DMSO intomethylsulfonylmethane, one may act on the assumption that identical results can be achieved with either compound. However, the number of studies conducted on MSM isn’t nearly as large as the number of those conducted on DMSO.

DMSO is often found in lotions and ointments. Since DMSO can easily be absorbed by human skin, it’s active ingredients reach the blood stream much more rapidly. It also has anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effects.

In contrast, methylsulfonylmethane is absorbed via the digestive system and has to pass through the liver before it is released into the bloodstream.This means the absorbed amount is significantly reduced.

However, DMSO has the disadvantage that, when taken orally, it may lead to unpleasant breath (scent of fish and garlic). People who use DMSO in the form of ointments frequently report skin irritations. Although DMSO has been classified as a pharmaceutical, MSM is actually classified as a dietary supplement, meaning it can be purchased over the counter.

Studies on MSM as a treatment for osteoarthritis

“The Pain-relieving Effect has Been Proven”

MSM for joint painDietary supplements containing methylsulfonylmethane have been used in the United States for quite some time. Nonetheless, there have been no clinical studies researching the effects of this sulfone prior to 2006.

In 2006, scientists conducted the first small-scale study with the intention of revealing whether or not MSM is effective in osteoarthritis patients.1 Fifty men and women between the ages of 40 and 76 took part in the study. Neither the doctors, nor their patients knew whether they were receiving the actual remedy or a simple placebo. For a duration of twelve weeks, the osteoarthritis patients took three grams ofmethylsulfonylmethane or three grams of the placebo, respectively.

After three months, the MSM group reported that their pains were less intense, while their joint function was increased. Consequently, the quality of patients’ every day lives was significantly increased.

Treatment of Osteoarthritis – Meta Study

Another study evaluated all published research regarding the role of MSM in the treatment of osteoarthritis2. This type of systematic assessment of other research results is referred to as a “meta study”.

Generally, meta studies are viewed as extraordinarily significant. All in all, 168 patient results regarding the effect of methylsulfonylmethane on osteoarthritis were taken into consideration.

This study was also able to verify the alleviation of pain, yet the data supporting this could not be backed by statistics. The individual studies often involved variations in methodology, particularly with regards to the best possible dosage or the duration of treatment.

Improvement in Functionality and Reduction of Pain

A new paper from 2011 now confirms the pilot study by Kim and colleagues conducted in 2006: MSM can improve mobility and alleviate pain in osteoarthritis patients.

Using an identical experiment set-up, 49 men and women between the ages of 45 and 90 took part in the 2011 study. The doctors and patients didn’t know whether they were receiving methylsulfonylmethane or a simple placebo. This time the dosage was lower than that used in the preceding study.

Participants received 1,125 mg MSM twice a day, or the Placebo. Patients were questioned with regards to their algesia and subjective mobility of the affected joints. Surveys took place on the first day, after six additional weeks, as well as after twelve weeks (at the end of the study).

An improvement of mobility, as well as a lower burden of pain were reported by those patients treated with MSM. The observed effects were relatively exiguous. Thus, according to the scientists, it remains unclear whether methylsulfonylmethane does indeed display a relevant clinical effect on osteoarthritis.

Animal Experiment Proves MSM’s Efficacy

The reason animal experiments are necessary

The medical field recognizes various types of studies. “In vitro” are studies based on cell cultures. These studies have the advantage that other effects can be shielded. However, a cell culture inside a Petri dish exhibits a different behavior than that of cells within a complete and complex organism. Therefore, studies performed on humans (“in vivo studies”) are most significant.

Yet, if the goal is proving long-term effects, researchers are reluctant to wait over one to five years. Consequently, they like to resort to a trick: they examine the effects via very large dosages, as well as in extreme situations. In order to avoid putting humans at such a risk, animals which are genetically close to humans are used for those types of studies.

MSM in arthritis in mice

One animal experiment study conducted in 2013 may now deliver this proof. A Japanese team of researchers studied the influence of MSM on the degradation of cartilage in arthritic mice. In doing so, they determined that an appropriate intake of MSM may indeed reduce cartilage damage. Nonetheless, caution will be needed in the future, because large dosages of MSM may cause serious atrophies of the organs, as demonstrated by the mouse model. 3.

Additional uses of MSM

Additional Uses of MSM

MSM is also used for:

  • sulfur deficits in general,
  • for reduction of homocysteine levels4
  • for improvement of blood circulation,
  • for improvement of wound healing.

However, far less research has been conducted on these uses, compared to the use for treatment of osteoarthritis and arthritis.

Safety of MSM: Side Effects, Contraindications

In the EU, MSM is classified as a dietary supplement. It is very safe to use and no side effects worth mentioning were observed. Overdosing is difficult to cause, even willfully and with maximum effort.


The dosage at which test animals suffered methylsulfonylmethane poisoning amounted to around 20 grams per kilogram body weight. Therefor, a human (75 kg) would have to take about 1.5 kilograms each day. Studies with volunteers involved administration of 1 gram per kg body weight (i.e. about 60 to 90 grams per day) over one month. No negative epiphenomena were detected.5

Recommended Dosage

Based on the studies, the recommended dosage is between 0.5 grams and 4 grams per day. Higher dosages should only be used under medical supervision for general safety reasons.

MSM is also not appropriate for use during pregnancy. However, that’s a general recommendation as scientific knowledge is insufficient.

The dosage information relates to the oral intake (capsules, pills). In rare cases, MSM is also injected under the skin or – like DMSO – added to ointments. Especially in such cases, please consult your physician.

Purchasing MSM capsules

Several good combination preparations for joints also contain MSM. As the health of the joint cartilage depends on many factors, combination preparations are usually superior to individual active ingredients.

Provide your joints with all nutrients they need. Read the overview of the best joint supplements here.



You may purchase MSM or methylsulfonylmethane from your pharmacy as a dietary supplement. Likewise, numerous recommendable remedies with good customer reviews can be found on Amazon, some of which we have selected here:


Sources and Studies on MSM:

  1. Kim et al. 2006. Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in osteoarthritis pain of the knee: a pilot clinical trial. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 14(3), 286-294
  2. Brien et al. 2008. Systematic review of the nutritional supplements dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 16(11), 1277-1288
  3. Ezaki et al. 2013. Assessment of safety and efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane on bone and knee joints in osteoarthritis animal model. J Bone Miner Metab 31(1), 16-25; doi: 10.1007/s00774-012-0378-9
  4. Kim LS, Axelrod LJ, Howard P et al; “Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in osteoarthritis pain of the knee: a pilot clinical trial. “; Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2006;14(3):286-94.
  5. Jacob WS, Appleton J.; “MSM: the definite guide. A comprehensive review of the science and therapeutics of methylsulfonylmethane.”; Topanga, CA. Freedom Press, 2003